Publications

Several of these publications are available for purchase from the Population Reference Bureau's online store. (Materials are available free of charge to developing countries.)

To obtain print copies of available IGWG publications, please e-mail idea@prb.org or contact International Programs, Population Reference Bureau, 1875 Connecticut Ave., NW, Suite 520, Washington, DC 20009, USA. Fax: 202-328-3937.

Infographic explores the intersection of intimate partner violence and family planning. Intimate Partner Violence and Family Planning Infographic (2093 KB)

16 Days of Activism Against Gender-Based Violence is an international campaign originating from the first Women's Global Leadership Institute sponsored by the Center for Women's Global Leadership at Rutgers University. Developed for this 25th anniversary of the campaign, this infographic explores the intersection of intimate partner violence and family planning.

Family Planning and Human Rights (PDF: 188 KB)
"Family planning saves lives" is a simple health prescription that resonates globally. A critical challenge is to ensure that policies and programs embrace the well-established benefits of enabling women to choose whether and when to become pregnant—actions and values that are integral to human rights. Policymakers should be asking, "What do human rights mean in relation to family planning, how do we incorporate them into our country family planning and development plans, and why is that important?"

This brief, drawing from human rights treaties and covenants that have the status of international law, clarifies key human rights principles and outlines policy actions that must be taken to ensure that voluntary family planning programs result in contraceptive use based on full, free, and informed choice. It is also consistent with the rights and empowerment principles of Family Planning 2020 (FP2020), a global partnership that grew out of the 2012 London Summit on Family Planning.

Intimate Partner Violence and Family Planning: Opportunities for Action (223 KB)
Intimate partner violence (IPV)—physical and/or sexual violence by a current or former partner—is an issue that women in all regions and all countries experience. Globally, approximately one in three women who have ever been in a relationship have experienced IPV. Women face a greater risk of violence from an intimate partner than from anyone else. This brief presents data to help policymakers and others understand the nature and extent of the harm caused by IPV, especially as it relates to women’s reproductive health, family planning, and autonomy, and highlights opportunities for action. Policymakers can combat IPV and its consequences by promoting integrated policies and dedicating financial resources to support systems, programs, and services to address the intersection of IPV, health, and women’s empowerment.

Gender Equality, Inside and Out: Gender Mainstreaming in International Development Organizations (PDF: 3.1 MB)

This paper is a resource to help those interested in gender mainstreaming learn what tools and resources are available to initiate, support, and sustain that process (March 2015).

When Technology and Tradition Collide: From Gender Bias to Sex Selection
This brief focuses on the motivations and mechanisms behind the increase of prenatal sex selection; outlines regions and countries that have skewed sex ratios at birth; and explores the negative social, economic, and development effects on individuals, communities, societies, and countries. While prenatal sex selection was once thought to be unique to India and China, it actually threatens all regions where these three phenomena are converging.

A Practical Guide for Managing and Conducting Gender Assessments in the Health Sector (PDF: 849KB)
This assessment guide was developed in response to the USG's establishment of institutional mandates and policies that emphasize the importance of promoting gender equality to achieve desired development outcomes. The objective of this guide is to enable USG and USAID partners to design, collect, use, and manage information on the linkages between gender inequality and health. (June 2013)

A Summary Report of New Evidence That Gender Perspectives Improve Reproductive Health Outcomes (PDF: 1.3 MB)
This new review assembles the latest data and updates the evidence as to what difference it makes when a gender perspective is incorporated into reproductive health programs. (March 2011)

Synchronizing Gender Strategies: A Cooperative Model for Improving Reproductive Health and Transforming Gender Relations (PDF: 532KB)
This new publication examines a new approach to gender integration known as "gender synchronization." It makes the case that gender inequities and norms that harm health can be best addressed by working with men and women in a coordinated or synchronized way. The report defines some of the characteristics of gender synchronization, gives examples of existing gender-synchronized programs, and some emerging programs to watch for. (October 2010)

The Crucial Role of Health Services in Responding to Gender-Based Violence (PDF: 360KB)
Reports are beginning to emerge on successful responses to gender-based violence within health systems. This policy brief examines why health services should address gender-based violence and highlights examples of health programs that have incorporated responses to violence into their work. (August 2010)

Gender-Based Violence: Impediment to Reproductive Health (PDF: 373KB)
This two-page brief succinctly answers the question “Why IS GBV Relevant to Reproductive Health?” Produced for the IGWG by Population Reference Bureau and funded by USAID, the brief outlines the sheer magnitude of GBV and its impacts on many reproductive health outcomes, including unintended pregnancy, maternal and child impacts, and STIs/HIV. It is a valuable resource in making the case quickly for policymakers everywhere. (June 2010)

Gender Perspectives Improve Reproductive Health Outcomes: New Evidence (PDF: 700KB)
This long-awaited update to the 2004 “So What?” report assembles the latest data and presents the evidence as to the impact of incorporating a gender perspective into reproductive health programs.  The 40 programs examined include evaluated interventions that impact unintended pregnancy, maternal health, HIV/AIDS and other STIs, harmful practices, and youth. (February 2010)

Engaging Men for Gender Equality and Improved Reproductive Health (PDF: 549KB)
This brief describes the evolution of constructive men’s engagement (CME) over the last 15 years and makes the case for why it is critical in achieving improved reproductive health and gender equality. Four promising policy initiatives are described, as well as a process for advocating for policy change and recommendations for what policy and advocacy audiences need to consider (December 2009).

Lessons from PROCOSI: Reference Guides for Health Care Organizations Seeking Accreditation for Gender-Sensitive Reproductive Health Services
This gender accreditation manual was developed as part of the USAID-funded Frontiers in Reproductive Health program effort, with the Integral Health Coordination Program of Bolivia, PROCOSI. PROCOSI is a network of 33 NGOs providing reproductive health care that has long promoted gender sensitivity as a necessary component of high-quality health care. The complete gender accreditation manual includes four reference documents: a procedures guide, a self-training guide, an assessment guide, and a costing guide, as well as a variety of interactive appendices for practical learning and use. (September 2009)

A Manual for Integrating Gender Into Reproductive Health and HIV Programs: From Commitment to Action (2nd edition) (PDF: 1.3MB)
This publication is an updated and revised version of the November 2003 reference manual prepared by IGWG's Gender Manual Task Force. It provides organizations with a current resource on how to integrate a gender-equity approach into the design and implementation of reproductive health programs and includes case studies and worksheets. (August 2009)

Addressing Gender-Based Violence Through USAID’s Health Programs: A Guide for Health Sector Program Officers (Second Edition) (PDF: 956KB)
This new revision of the 2006 guide, prepared by the POLICY project, complements the literature review undertaken for the IGWG by Alessandra Guedes and is intended to help USAID program officers integrate gender-based violence (GBV) initiatives into their health sector portfolio during project design, implementation, and evaluation. (September 2008). Available also in French (PDF: 948KB) and Spanish (PDF: 936KB). (September 2008)

Cross-Generational Sex: Risks and Opportunities (PDF: 396KB)
This new policy brief has been produced collaboratively by the Interagency Gender Working Group (IGWG) and the Interagency Youth Working Group (IYWG). It defines cross-generational sex, summarizes where it occurs, outlines the motivations behind the behavior, and recommends actions for policymakers and program managers. This brief builds on a lengthier publication, Addressing Cross-Generational Sex: A Desk Review of Research and Programs (PDF: 800KB), produced in August 2007. (August 2008)

Violence Against Women and Girls: A Compendium of Monitoring and Evaluation Indicators (PDF: 740KB)
This publication, developed for the USAID East Africa Regional Mission and the IGWG by MEASURE Evaluation, focuses on VAW/G program monitoring and evaluation. Leading experts from around the world who work in the various fields of VAW/G were consulted during all stages of the development process. See also, a powerpoint presented by Shelah Bloom titled Violence Against Women and Girls: A Compendium of Monitoring and Evaluation Indicators (PPT: 280KB) at the IGWG seminar in recognition of the 2008 16 Days of Activism Against GBV. (January 2008)

Addressing Cross-Generational Sex: A Desk Review of Research and Programs (PDF: 800KB)
This publication, produced by the IGWG and the Interagency Youth Working Group (IYWG), presents definitions and prevalence of cross-generational sex, explores interventions and promising practices aimed at reducing risks associated with cross-generational sex outside of marriage, and makes recommendations for next steps. (August 2007)

New Insights on Preventing Child Marriage: A Global Analysis of Factors and Programs (PDF: 1.2MB)
A new study conducted by ICRW for the IGWG found that key factors such as girls’ education, spousal age gap, and poverty strongly determine whether girls in the developing world will become child brides. (April 2007)

Strengthening Regional Work on Gender-Based Violence (PDF: 1MB)
This report synthesizes the workshops, presentations and discussions from a November 2006 regional workshop held in Kampala, Uganda. More than 100 community activists, advocates, researchers, service providers, health care professionals and practitioners from 15 countries shared innovative interventions, unexpected challenges and lessons learned from their collective experiences in the field. The meeting was a collaborative initiative of PATH, the IGWG, Raising Voices, the Gender-Based Violence Prevention Network, and the East Africa Regional Office of USAID. (November 2006)

SysteMALEtizing Resources for Engaging Men in Sexual and Reproductive Health
Decades of research on reproductive and child health show that everyone can benefit when men are thoughtfully engaged. But distinguishing among the number and diversity of programs, research, and tools is daunting. This electronic brochure, prepared by Margaret Greene for the IGWG, lays out many of the key resources for working with men and provides a framework for distinguishing among varied programs, illustrating the range with strong examples. (July 2006)

A Summary of the 'So What?' Report: A Look at Whether Integrating a Gender Focus Into Programmes Makes a Difference to Outcomes (PDF: 996KB)
This is a summary of the longer IGWG 'So What?' report published in March 2004. This brief, which is aimed at policymakers and program managers, presents the evidence that integrating gender into reproductive health programs makes a difference to outcomes, both reproductive health outcomes and gender outcomes. It was produced through a collaboration between the IGWG and WHO’s Department of Gender, Women and Health. Also available in Spanish (PDF: 840KB) and French (PDF: 804KB). (July 2005)

The Intersection of Gender, Access, and Quality of Care in Reproductive Health Services: Examples from Kenya, India, and Guatemala (PDF: 375KB)
This USAID-funded electronic publication examines how programs in Kenya, India, and Guatemala have integrated gender in order to improve quality of care and access to care. Authored by Karen Hardee with the IGWG's Gender, Access, and Quality of Care (GAQ) Task Force and the Maximizing Access and Quality (MAQ) Initiative, this report describes the experiences of three different types of programs: government, reproductive health NGOs, and women's health NGOs. (May 2005)

Do Empowered Mothers Foster Gender Equity and Better Reproductive Health in the Next Generation? A Qualitative Analysis from Rural Bangladesh (PDF: 69KB)
This six-page policy brief investigates whether empowered mothers and mothers-in-law are more likely to promote better reproductive health and positive gender norms among married daughters and daughters-in-law in the next generation. The brief, based on a study funded in part by an IGWG small grant, includes recommendations for making policies and programs more effective in supporting women's empowerment. (January 2005)

Gender-Based Violence and Reproductive Health
This special issue of the journal International Family Planning Perspectives, published by the Alan Guttmacher Institute, examines the reproductive health consequences of gender-based violence and presents reports from Africa, Asia, and Latin America. It provides new evidence that these women not only sustain physical injuries, they are more likely than other women to have unintended pregnancies, report symptoms of reproductive tract infections and have multiple partners, and less likely to use condoms and other contraceptives. (December 2004)

Implementation Guide on Reaching Men to Improve Reproductive and Sexual Health for All
This guide provides examples of how to develop, implement, and evaluate reproductive health programs that involve men in promoting gender equity and improving health outcomes for men and women. This tool draws on information gathered at the "Reaching Men to Improve Reproductive Health for All" international conference held in Dulles, Virginia, in September 2003. (September 2004)

How to Integrate Gender into HIV/AIDS Programs: Using Lessons Learned from USAID and Partner Organizations (PDF: 728KB)
About 45 percent of the people living with HIV/AIDS at the end of 2002 were women. Developing appropriate responses to the gender issues that continue to make both women and men vulnerable to HIV is critical to all efforts in preventing HIV transmission, improving care and support for victims, and mitigating the impacts of the pandemic. This briefing booklet was put together to give program staff of USAID and partner organizations field-based insights on how to integrate gender into HIV/AIDS programs in a practical sense. (May 2004)

What's Gender Got to Do with It? Evidence that Integrating Gender into Reproductive Health Programs Makes a Difference (PPT: 151KB)
Countless calls have been made about the need to promote gender equity in reproductive health programs. However, there has not been an adequate assessment of the direct evidence that integrating a gender perspective in reproductive health programming makes a positive difference to program outcomes. This presentation, given by Karen Hardee at USAID Global Health Mini-University on May 10, 2004, includes discussion of the categories of gender integration and the findings and recommendations from an Interagency Gender Working Group review of 25 interventions that sought to transform gender relations. (May 2004)

Addressing Gender-Based Violence from the Reproductive Health/HIV Sector: A Literature Review and Analysis (PDF: 584KB)
Gender-based violence is a pervasive public health and human rights problem, which results in negative consequences for women's health and well-being, their families, and societies in general. Around the world at least one woman in every three has been beaten, coerced into sex, or otherwise abused in her lifetime. This report, commissioned by the IGWG, provides a literature review and analysis to USAID's Bureau for Global Health on programs in developing countries that have addressed or challenged gender-based violence with a link to the reproductive health/HIV sectors. (May 2004)

The 'So What' Report: A Look at Whether Integrating a Gender Focus Into Programs Makes a Difference to Outcomes (PDF: 864KB)
This IGWG publication reviews the evidence that integrating gender into reproductive health programs makes a difference to outcomes, both reproductive health outcomes and gender outcomes. Out of nearly 400 interventions reviewed, 25 are included in the report as examples of this integration. This report was prepared by the Interagency Gender Working Group Task Force. (March 2004)

A Manual for Integrating Gender into Reproductive Health and HIV Programs: From Commitment to Action (PDF: 533KB)
This reference manual, prepared by IGWG's Gender Manual Task Force, focuses on the "how" of gender integration. Program managers and designers of new programs will find it to be an invaluable tool for integrating gender concerns into program design, implementation, and evaluation, thereby improving reproductive health through equitable gender relations. This publication is available in English, French, and Spanish. For a copy, please send an email to popref@prb.org.

Three Case Studies: Involving Men to Address Gender Inequities (PDF: 742KB)
Profiles of three innovative programs (Salud y Género, Society for the Integrated Development of the Himalayas (SIDH), and Stepping Stones) that have involved men and youth in efforts to improve reproductive health outcomes for both men and women. (July 2003)

A Framework to Identify Gender Indicators for Reproductive Health and Nutrition Programming (PDF: 512KB)
This publication presents a framework for incorporating gender into the design and evaluation of PHN programs and provides process indicators to help PHN program planners address gender-related barriers and constraints to improved reproductive outcomes in the areas of family planning, safe motherhood, postabortion care, nutrition, and HIV/AIDS. (October 2002)

Gender-based Violence and Reproductive Health & HIV/AIDS: Summary of a Technical Update (PDF: 512KB)
Based on a day-long technical update, this publication explores if and how gender-based violence (GBV) and RH/HIV intersect and how best to integrate GBV concerns into RH/HIV programs. (October 2002)

Exploring Gender Perspectives in Population and Health Programs: Workshop Findings and Recommendations (PDF: 293KB)
Based on interviews and workshops in 1999 exploring how project managers regard gender, this paper outlines the workshop methodology, findings (such as five diverse perspectives on integrating gender into PHN programs) and the project managers' recommendations for integrating gender into the design of PHN projects and programs. (July 2002)

Involving Men in Sexual and Reproductive Health: An Orientation Guide
A tool organized by modules intended to raise awareness and make the case for male involvement in family planning, STD/HIV prevention, safe motherhood, and reducing gender-based violence (May 2002). This CD-ROM is also available in Spanish.

Gender and HIV/AIDS: Selected Resources
As part of its mandate to document efforts to address gender and HIV within the USAID community, the IGWG Gender and HIV Taskforce compiled a CD-ROM with over 25 selected reference documents offering guidance in key technical areas such as male involvement; youth; voluntary counseling and testing and gender-based violence; integration; parent-to-child transmission; sexual and reproductive rights and health of women; and skills building and educational materials. (January 2002)

Guide for Incorporating Gender Considerations in USAID's Family Planning and Reproductive Health RFAs and RFPs (PDF: 128KB)
This guide was created to assist USAID technical staff in fulfilling the USAID requirement for gender integration in the ADS 200 and 300 series by providing strategies to design Requests for Application (RFAs) and Requests for Proposals (RFPs) concerning reproductive health in a way that integrates gender. (October 2000)

Research Gaps Related to Gender Issues and Population, Health, and Nutrition Programs: An Analysis (PDF: 388KB)
This paper outlines what constitutes "gender-sensitive" research for reproductive health and compiles a list of research gaps related to reproductive health and rights aspects of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) and the 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women (April 2000). Summary of an Analysis is also available in print copy.

Arabic Publication on Men and Reproductive Health
This document is a 44-page resource for Arabic health providers and policymakers on involving men in reproductive health programs. (Family Health International)

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